Category Archives: treatments

On Elizabeth Garrett Anderson

In 1870 Elizabeth Garrett Anderson obtained her M.D. with a thesis on the history of migraine.

I’ve noticed Elizabeth Garrett Anderson popping up in my Twitter feed recently. On 29 September the Royal Society of Medicine in London are hosting ‘A celebration of Elizabeth Garrett Anderson and 150 years of medicine’, to commemorate the 150th anniversary of Elizabeth Garrett becoming a Licentiate of the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries. This made her the first woman in Britain to qualify for inclusion in its Medical Register.

In 1872, Elizabeth Garrett Anderson founded the New Hospital for Women, which was also staffed by women. After her death the purpose-built premises in Euston Road were renamed in her honour. Until 1988 it remained facility run by women, for women. The building is still a prominent feature on Euston Road, now part of the UNISON Centre and housing a gallery commemorating her achievements. Continue reading

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A fifteenth-century poem

I recently received a message from Jenni Nuttall, a Lecturer in English at Oxford University, asking whether I had come across a migraine poem by the fifteenth-century Scottish poet William Dunbar that she had written about on her own blog.

The first verse of the poem reads as follows:

On his heid-ake

My heid did yak yester nicht,
This day to mak that I na micht.
So sair the magryme dois me menyie,
Perseing my brow as ony ganyie,
That scant I luik may on the licht.

Here is the translation from Middle Scots into English (with thanks to Jenni for allowing me to use this):

My head did ache last night,
so much that I cannot  write poetry today.
So painfully the migraine does disable me,
piercing my brow just like any arrow,
that I can scarcely look at the light.

There are two more verses of the poem  in which Dunbar describes the physical pain of looking at the light and, as Nuttall observes, he also beautifully captures a sense of the migraine aftermath, or ‘postdrome’ – although Dunbar would get up the following morning, his spirit remained asleep, unable to waken for mirth or minstrelcy, revelry or dancing.

Vein man

Miniature of vein man, or a phlebotomy(blood-letting) chart, inscribed ‘Homo venorum’. British Library Egerton MS 2572 f. 50.

There is actually a suprising amount of evidence of how medieval people dealt with migraine. Images of homo venorum often included instructions for bleeding, such as this one in a fifteenth-century guild book of the York Company of Barber Surgeons.  The circle in the bottom left hand corner refers to the point between the thumb and first finger of the man’s right hand, and contains instructions in Middle English for treating ‘migram’ by opening the vein between the fingers and the thumb. The literature and imagery of phlebotomy offers some of the earliest evidence in a long history of migraine management in everyday medical practice. Other medieval treatments include a cap made of aloe, myrrh, wheat flour and poppy oil in the thirteenth-century manuscript of Causae et Curae, attributed to Hildegard of Bingen. In eleventh-century Chartres, a patient might have been told to stroke peony root over the site of pain, while a thirteenth-century Welsh text recommends eating a baked or roasted hare’s brain stuffed with rosemary flowers, followed by sleep to treat the ‘migran’. So there is evidence of medieval descriptions of migraine and of treatments, but what is so important about Dunbar’s poem is its expression of something much less tangible, of what people thought a migraine felt like in the fifteenth century.

I was delighted to finally learn of this poem, and yet Dunbar is hardly obscure: he was employed by James IV, and his migraine poem has been discussed a number of times. To my knowledge he has yet to be noticed by historians of medicine. This is a wonderful poem – in many ways it seems a staggeringly modern evocation of a migraine – and it certainly deserves to be included in our sources.

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Migraine Marketplaces: Of Ideas and Hope

In her recent memoir, All in My Head, about dealing with the chronic pain of continuous headache, Paula Kamen talks of the long and circuitous journey she took to find effective medication, and of the turn to alternative treatments that followed the constant failures. Alternative medicine, she writes, “appealed precisely because it was not Western medicine, which I had grown to revile and fear” (p.114). I’ve been thinking about Kamen’s search for relief over the past week, as I’ve been researching the treatments available to people with migraine in the very early years of the eighteenth century. Historians of medicine are used to talking about the ‘medical marketplace’ but Kamen uses a different phrase to describe this world: as the ‘marketplace of ideas’ (p.115). Continue reading

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On Migraine and the Eyes

I recently wrote a post for the Recipes Project, a wonderful collaborative blog about magic, art, food, medicine and history. I was tracing the origins of a ‘megreeme’ remedy (dated 1606) across printed and manuscript recipe collections – a trail that led through four centuries. Searching the digitised collections of the Wellcome Library’s early modern recipe collections has been one of the joys of this migraine research project – the wealth of medical, culinary and veterinary knowledge within them is astounding. There are also more than thirty remedies for migraine within these  manuscripts. From basic plasters to be laid over the head, to complex drinks that required effort and financial outlay to create but would then keep for many years, there is a real sense that many of the compilers of these precious volumes of domestic medical knowledge encountered migraine routinely, and took it seriously. So when I received a tweet asking whether visual migraines were ever mentioned, I was happy for an excuse to return to the collections again. Continue reading

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