Tag Archives: archives

Making the Migraine Art Collection Public

Migraine Action is the national advisory and support charity for people affected by migraine, and is based just down the road from me in Leicester, UK. It provides support to individuals, families, businesses, medical professionals and support workers, with the aim to help sufferers to take control of their migraine and reduce its impact in their home life and in the workplace.

Migraine Action also holds a remarkable archive of around 550 original pieces of artwork which were produced by members of the public for four Migraine Art Competitions held between 1980 and 1987. Entrants were invited to illustrate their own impressions of visual disturbance or the effect migraine has on their everyday lives. The collection represents the work of around 450 artists, of whom three-quarters were women, and one in ten were children aged 16 and under.

Child detail

Detail of a Child’s Drawing. Reproduced with permission of Migraine Action.

Since the beginning of my project, I have wanted to include the art collection as a chapter in my book. While neurologists have considered the depictions of aura in these works to be useful in understanding something about the mechanisms of migraine, they have also dismissed the significance of the depictions of pain and lived experience. This seems wrong to me. Individually and collectively the artworks in the collection provide a vivid insight into life with pain and illness. Aesthetically many pieces of work – the hairstyles, the airbrushing, the net curtains, the cultural references – are very much a product of the 1980s, but the concerns represented by these artists often appear to be timeless. Depictions of daggers, hammers, flashing lights, pulsing veins, flames, social isolation, are as relevant now, as they were to the people who talked of migraine in the fifteenth or seventeenth centuries. But it is the images by children that I found most moving, and difficult to look at. I often wonder how a parent must have felt, after urging their child to draw a picture for the competition, but then having to see the results – their child’s view of pain, isolation and unhappiness.

As I have been working in the Migraine Action offices on my research, we have often wondered about how we could make this important collection more accessible to the public. The opportunity came earlier this year, when we successfully bid for funding from the University of Leicester REF Impact Development Fund, which aims to help researchers develop the public impact of their work.

The grant we were awarded has enabled us to employ a Research Assistant to catalogue and scan the collection, and to commission the Leicester-based social-enterprise design and communications agency We Are Epic to create a website which will give free public access to the entire collection.

The project began in earnest in early March, and the first task for Dr Steve Ling, our ReseAura detail 2Aura detail 3arch Associate, was to catalogue the entire collection. One of the most important aspects of this cataloguing has been the ‘tagging’ of images with keywords that will transfer to the website as search terms. Steve is now well into the high-resolution scanning. Seeing these images at such a large scale on the screen is wonderful, revealing the detail of every brushstroke and pen line.

Migraine detailMeanwhile, We Are Epic have been working hard on the website design. I am so excited about the ways that people will be able to search for images by theme and keyword. The website will be completed over the summer, and we hope to launch during Migraine Awareness week in September.

The historian’s research process is a long one, and it can be years before our results appear in print. This project has happened fast. It’s been so exciting to work with such an enthusiastic team on something that has such a clear and simple purpose. I can’t wait to share it with you all. More soon!

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Filed under archives, art collection, aura, digitisation, history, patients, people

Why the Long History?

The heating in my office is back on, the students are returning to the flats next door, and the new academic year is rapidly advancing. Over the last few days I have found myself looking back over my summer of writing and thinking about my project as a whole, as I attempt to gather my thoughts and preserve my ideas, in the knowledge that until at least December, I will have precious little time to dedicate to writing chapters about migraine, as I turn my thoughts to teaching modules about Australia, migration and convicts.

Text page

British Library Royal 12 D XVII (Bald’s Leechbook) f. 7

Even since the beginning of the summer, the scope of my project has expanded far beyond my already stretched comfort-zone. Somewhat to my surprise I found myself spending much of July working on a chapter that begins in the tenth century with four remedies for ‘half’s heads ache’ in Bald’s Leechbook, and ends in the fifteenth century, with William Dunbar’s fantastic poem.

In early September I presented some of my work on migraine to the bi-annual European Association for the History of Medicine and Health conference, on the theme of ‘Cash and Care’. It was in many respects an excellent event – particularly the hospitality of our hosts – but I was shocked at how few papers considered any period before a very modern era, not least given the significance of the ‘medical marketplace’ scholarship over recent years. I began my own paper by talking about Linda Ehrsam Voigts’ work on the fifteenth-century banns of an itinerant medical practitioner, and joked that I had accidentally found myself working on the medieval period.

In the questions, a member of the audience commented that they had never heard of anyone trying to write a thousand year history of an illness before.

There is, perhaps, a reason for that.

And so since then, I have been thinking about this chronology: what am I trying to do? And why has this long time span come to matter so much to me, when many of my colleagues would consider it naively ambitious at best, if not simply impossible? Certainly, I cannot imagine a funding committee would have endorsed such a proposal when I began…

Historians have, of course, long advocated for paying attention to the longue duree. Fernand Braudel famously described events as ‘the ephemera of history’, as ‘surface disturbances, crests of foam that the tides of history carry on their strong backs’ . More recently, in their much-debated History Manifesto, the historians Jo Guldi and David Armitage argued that “historians once told arching stories of scale but, nearly forty years ago, many if not most of them stopped doing so. For two generations, between about 1975 and 2005, they conducted most of their studies on biological time-spans of between five and fifty years, approximating the length of a mature human life”. Guldi and Armitage identify a shift in our historical horizons. They have begun to expand once more, this time with the turn to ‘deep’ history. Medical historians have been among those diving in. In 2011 Monica Green urged historians of health to ‘go deep’ as well as ‘go global’ if we are to compete with the historical insights being produced in fields such as genomics & bioarchaeology.

My scale is not quite that expansive. For me, it is the availability of digitised material that has driven this chronology, sending a project that I had initially conceived as modern in scope, creeping ever further back through the centuries. A stream of highly fragmented, but extremely rich sources, has become navigable through online catalogues, digitisation projects and Google searches. Alongside bread-and-butter archival research, images of glittering medieval and early modern manuscripts – now freely available in high resolution – have repeatedly demanded my attention.

I will write more about the digital challenge soon, suffice to say that I have become acutely aware of the inbuilt distortions inherent to digitization that reinscribe hierarchies of class, race, gender & wealth privilege even while purporting to make archives ‘open to all’. My own project is geographically focused on Britain and Ireland, with glances across the English Channel and Atlantic to France and America. In the few cases where I discuss ‘global’ knowledge, I am aware that these are often ideas that have been appropriated by observers and collectors of the exotic in only the most superficial of ways.

13th century trepanation.

Mediaeval surgeon trepanning. 13th century.

Attempting a project of this chronological scale has proved a real challenge – not least in the amount of reading required to come even to the most basic understanding of any new era. As a colleague pointed out to me as I began to make plans, “You are not Owsei Temkin”. He was referring to Temkin’s magisterial Falling Sickness – his classic study of epilepsy, first published in 1945, which took readers on an odyssey through two millenia from ancient Hippocratic texts to John Hughlings Jackson, the nineteenth century ‘father’ of modern neurology. Temkin’s scholarship is staggering, but there are good reasons for looking at topics such as migraine over a long period, even if our attempts are on a far more modest chronological and intellectual scale than Temkin.

For a start it reveals surprising continuities. In many cases, medieval descriptions of the symptoms of ’emigranea’  as a piercing pain associated often with problems of eyesight seem closer to our own modern understanding of migraine with aura, than do eighteenth-century discussions in which migraine is associated with dizziness, unease, and seems to be – for want of a better word – altogether more fuzzy.

When we stretch out to a thousand years we see also that our current gendered pre-occupations, are far from inevitable – more of a blip, than the status quo. This is not to say that these assumptions are not deeply entrenched or that they will be easy to challenge. Far from it.

Taking the long view seriously, and populating the medieval, early modern, and modern period with a whole variety of people who experience, treat and discuss migraine takes us way beyond the old cliche of trepanation. It puts women back into the story as creators of knowledge, puts men back into the story as sufferers. Far from simply serving to reinforce a modern sense of superiority by highlighting the inadequacies of past knowledge, and the barbarity of practices long since abandoned, a long time span humbles our own knowledge, putting it into historical context. It emphasises the contingent nature of medical understanding, and the fragility of consensus.

Most of all, it is really really fascinating. I can’t wait to pick the chapters up again with a fresh set of eyes, when I get the chance.

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A fifteenth-century poem

I recently received a message from Jenni Nuttall, a Lecturer in English at Oxford University, asking whether I had come across a migraine poem by the fifteenth-century Scottish poet William Dunbar that she had written about on her own blog.

The first verse of the poem reads as follows:

On his heid-ake

My heid did yak yester nicht,
This day to mak that I na micht.
So sair the magryme dois me menyie,
Perseing my brow as ony ganyie,
That scant I luik may on the licht.

Here is the translation from Middle Scots into English (with thanks to Jenni for allowing me to use this):

My head did ache last night,
so much that I cannot  write poetry today.
So painfully the migraine does disable me,
piercing my brow just like any arrow,
that I can scarcely look at the light.

There are two more verses of the poem  in which Dunbar describes the physical pain of looking at the light and, as Nuttall observes, he also beautifully captures a sense of the migraine aftermath, or ‘postdrome’ – although Dunbar would get up the following morning, his spirit remained asleep, unable to waken for mirth or minstrelcy, revelry or dancing.

Vein man

Miniature of vein man, or a phlebotomy(blood-letting) chart, inscribed ‘Homo venorum’. British Library Egerton MS 2572 f. 50.

There is actually a suprising amount of evidence of how medieval people dealt with migraine. Images of homo venorum often included instructions for bleeding, such as this one in a fifteenth-century guild book of the York Company of Barber Surgeons.  The circle in the bottom left hand corner refers to the point between the thumb and first finger of the man’s right hand, and contains instructions in Middle English for treating ‘migram’ by opening the vein between the fingers and the thumb. The literature and imagery of phlebotomy offers some of the earliest evidence in a long history of migraine management in everyday medical practice. Other medieval treatments include a cap made of aloe, myrrh, wheat flour and poppy oil in the thirteenth-century manuscript of Causae et Curae, attributed to Hildegard of Bingen. In eleventh-century Chartres, a patient might have been told to stroke peony root over the site of pain, while a thirteenth-century Welsh text recommends eating a baked or roasted hare’s brain stuffed with rosemary flowers, followed by sleep to treat the ‘migran’. So there is evidence of medieval descriptions of migraine and of treatments, but what is so important about Dunbar’s poem is its expression of something much less tangible, of what people thought a migraine felt like in the fifteenth century.

I was delighted to finally learn of this poem, and yet Dunbar is hardly obscure: he was employed by James IV, and his migraine poem has been discussed a number of times. To my knowledge he has yet to be noticed by historians of medicine. This is a wonderful poem – in many ways it seems a staggeringly modern evocation of a migraine – and it certainly deserves to be included in our sources.

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Migraine Episodes

This blog is about my search for the history of migraine, and the people who have experienced, treated and discussed this common disorder. This project covers an ambitious time span – from the fifteenth-century, to the modern-day.

There are many words for migraine in the English language; since the Roman physician, surgeon and philosopher Galen coined the term hemicrania to describe one-sided head pain in the second century, variations of this word have included emigranea, megrim, meagrom, and migraine, among others. In later centuries, we can also include sick and bilious headache. As illnesses go, it is a relatively easy one to find, particularly as more and more historical archives are digitised and the text becomes searchable. Continue reading

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